The Crimean War was fought between the Russians on one side and the British, French and Ottoman Turkish Empire on the other side. This war was fought from October 1853 to February 1856.
From January of 1855, the Births side gained the support of the Sardinia-Piedmont region too. This war was fought in the Russian region of Crimea.
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Cause for the Crimean War
This war was caused by the demands by Russia regarding protecting the Sultan of Ottoman’s Orthodox subjects.
France and Russia were at odds over the privileges of Russian Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches in Palestine.
Countries Involved in the Crimean War
The Turkish Ottoman Empire was supported by the British Empire. It opposed the Russian invasion on the Russo-Turkish border in July of 1853.
On October 4, The Turks declared war on Russia and began its attacks in the same month in the Russian occupied Danubian principalities which was situated on the Turkish-Russian border. The British openly supported the Turks and set off for Constantinople on September 23, 1853.
Crimean War Facts
The main war began when the Russian army attacked and destroyed a Turkish Fleet at Sinope, in the Turkish part of the Black Sea. The British and the French Fleet entered the Black Sea on January 3, 1854, for protection. and on March 28, 1854, Britain and France also declared war on Russia.
Russia backed out of the Danubian Principalities for Austria’s sake in August 1854. In September of that year, British, French and Turkish troops landed in Russian Crimea which was in the northern shore of the Black Sea.
Entrance of Sardinia-Piedmont
Majority of the fight took place at the Alma River on September 20, 1854, at Balaclava on October 25 and at Inkerman on November 5.
The troops of Sardinia-Piedmont entered the war on January 26, 1855, in support of the Turks. This army of 10,000, along with the French troops managed o weakest he Russian defense and fired them to leave Sevastopol.
Crimean War: Treaty of Paris
The Russians accepted the peace terms put across by the Allies on February 1, 1856. The final peace terms and settlement was a world on by the Congress of Paris from February 25 to March 30.
This was the Treaty of Paris which was signed on March 40, 1856. This treaty enforced Russia to surrender the Southern Bessarabia in the Danube region to Ottoman Turkey. The Black Sea and the Danube Region became open to shipping for all nations.
Effects of the Crimean War
At least 500,000 people in total were killed during the Crimean War. Along with this, rampant diseases also took a major toll on the populations of people in the countries involved in the war.
While the war did not mend the relations between the Eastern European countries, Alexander II, the new Russian Emperor realized the need for Russia to overcome numerous hurdles in order to become a superpower and compete with other European countries.
However, the latter two countries failed to support Austria and this led to its defeat in wars in 1859 and 1866 which led to the unification of Italy and Germany.